This post shares tips about how to stain and seal wood. Staining and finishing wood is an easy way to make it beautiful and durable for any project.
How to Stain and Seal Wood: An Easy Tutorial
I love staining wood. It is such an easy way to give a piece more depth or to add a classic touch to a piece and make it look more expensive. For example, the piece I’m working with for this post will be the new top to an Ikea dresser. Major upgrade!
And the process isn’t as difficult as you probably think it is, either. I was intimidated when I first started learning how to stain wood, but I actually think staining is an easier process than painting. Applying stain is so forgiving–you don’t have to worry about brush strokes because unfinished wood is going to soak in your stain however it wants to soak it in.
Applying polyurethane after staining is a little trickier, but the ability to sand out issues and apply multiple coats makes it pretty forgiving as well. So if you want to learn how to stain and finish wood, sit down and start taking some notes!
Here’s what I’m using for this tutorial:
- A piece of unfinished wood
- Minwax wood stain in Ebony. You can see other colors here. I like to Google the color to find finished pieces photographed in different lights. Remember that different woods will each take on stains a little differently, so just be flexible!
- Minwax polyurethane semi-gloss finish
- A piece of #220 grit sandpaper
- Tack cloth, a rag, and a disposable brush. You want a cheap brush for oil-based paints so you can throw them out when you’re done. You don’t want that stuff going down the drain.
- Miscellaneous: Drop cloth for work area, screw driver to open cans and stir, disposable gloves
(Remember to wear a mask and eye protection while sanding and working with wood, and wear an appropriate mask while working with paints, stains, and finishes. Follow the directions and warnings from your particular brand. Do not use any tools without proper training, precautions, and supervision.)
A note on sanding wood before staining it…
The piece of wood I’m working with for this tutorial is unfinished. That means that it has no primer, paint, or finish of any kind on it. It’s okay if you want to stain a finished piece of wood…you just have to sand everything off first! Wood must be unfinished to be stained. If it isn’t unfinished, the stain won’t be able to soak into the wood.
You can use an electric sander, a handle hand sander, or even just a piece of sand paper. Sandpaper comes in grades (or grits). The higher the number, the finer the grade. Medium grits are typically best for removing finishes (#120 and #150), and very fine grits (like#220) are used to buff a piece of wood before sanding or between finish coats.
As you’re sanding the finish off, use a dry paint brush to brush the dust off every few minutes to monitor your progress. When you’ve removed the finish completely, brush off the bulk of the dust and wipe down the entire piece using tack cloth.
Below are before and after photos of a bench I used an electric sander to sand the finish off of. In the second photo, I had completely finished sanding down the top, but I only gave a light sand to the body since I wasn’t staining that part–just painting it.
And here’s how to stain and seal wood:
Step 1: Prep the wood
If you didn’t have to strip a finish off of your piece, go ahead and use a fine grit (like#220) sandpaper to polish your piece. Break down the edges for a more finished look. Then, using tack cloth, wipe down the piece to remove any small pieces of dust.
Step 2: Apply wood stain
Open and stir your stain. Then, beginning on one side of the piece, start painting the stain on in the direction of the wood grain. You don’t need to use too much; a little bit goes a long way. If you put a little bit too much on, just gently brush it out over the unstained areas.
Watch for side drips. (Note: I do not use pre-stain wood conditioner, but if you’d like to, here is one that has good reviews.)Make sure you apply your stain in a well-ventilated area. You don’t want to be trapped in a room with this stuff, especially if you’re using an oil-based stain. I usually stain in the garage with a fan on or outdoors if it’s nice enough.
When you’ve finished painting the stain on, let it sit for 5–15 minutes to soak in, then grab your rag and gently wipe the piece down. This removes any excess stain. Add a second coat if you’d like the color to soak in a bit more. After this, let the stain dry for about 24 hours (up to 48 hours if you’re working in a super humid environment).
Tip: If you’re working with a smaller piece, you don’t need to use a brush. Just dip the rag in the stain and wipe it on the piece!
After staining wood do you have to seal it?
Yes! Wood stain is beautiful, but it’s only half the job. I mean, unless you’re using a two-in-one stain and sealer, which I don’t trust. Call me old fashioned. It’s like two-in-one shampoo and conditioner. Sounds like it will save time, but I question the efficacy. I may be totally wrong, but I am not a fan of two-in-ones 🙂
After staining wood, you have to seal if because the wood remains a porous surface. If you’re just using a regular stain, it can provide some degree of protection compared to totally unfinished wood. But it isn’t good enough. If you set a drink on a piece of wood that you’ve stained by not sealed, for example, it’s going to leave water rings that you can’t wipe out.
This is why I always recommend using some sort of sealing or finishing method on your stained DIY pieces. A good finish allows you to easily wipe down a piece to keep it looking brand new. Oh—and sealers and finishes often give your piece a nice polished look, too. Oil-based sealers and finished can bring out some beautiful colors and wood grain patterns, too.
But after staining wood, how do I finish it?
So now you know that I recommend sealing wood after staining it…but if you’re wondering how to finish wood after staining it—the answer is, it depends. There are a few ways to seal or finish wood after staining it. The preferred method I’ll talk about today is using a polyurethane or polycrylic (oil- or water-based, doesn’t matter).
More on this question:
- I also have a post about the differences between polycrylic and polyurethane, as well as how I decided which one to use on my big butcher block unfinished Ikea Gerton wood desk top.
- Likewise, if you want to read a bit about protecting wood using oil, check out my post on how to protect unfinished ipe wood using oil.
- I don’t ever use wax, but it’s a common method—check out Rockler’s post for more on that.
- I mentioned I also don’t use wood conditioners, but if you want to check out more on that topic, you can mosey over to Minwax’s website.
Step 3: Seal or “finish” the stained wood
After the stain has dried, it’s time for the first finishing coat. Remember, you put the stain on unfinished wood, so you need to seal the stain to protect it. Open and stir your polyurethane then brush a coat on. It will bubble as you brush it on. That’s okay, just slowly brush over the bubbles to smooth them out. Many of the bubbles will also pop as the finish dries. Again, watch for side drips!
Oil-based polyurethanes tend to be much trickier as far as dripping does. Monitor the sides of your project and the undersides for about 15 or so minutes for drips. Even if you catch the first round of drips, more might sneak in as the urethane settles. And remember—oil-based stuff STINKS! Work in a well-ventilated area and wear a mask.
Water-based polyurethanes and polycrylics have much less of a stench. They also don’t drip as badly in my experience, and they are forgiving to apply. AND they dry much, much faster, decreasing the required time between coats. However, water-based urethanes seem to require more coats for durability, and if you’re looking for a deep, high-gloss finish, oil-based is the best bet.
Step 4: Sand and add more coats as necessary
When the first coat of polyurethane dries, grab the #220 grit or higher sandpaper and very lightly do a quick sand over the entire piece. This will smooth out the surface and get rid of the bubbles that didn’t pop when the first coat was drying. Use your fingers to feel the surface before and after sanding to see the difference.
When you’re done sanding, wipe down the piece with your tack cloth and apply a second coat of polyurethane. I often do three coats of oil-based urethane, 4+ of water-based urethane, especially on pieces for my daughter. She’s a wrecking ball. You can do more coats if you’d like. Just remember to sand lightly between coats.
And that’s it! Isn’t it pretty? It’s such a nice way to upgrade a low-end piece of furniture. I put this on my Ikea Rast dresser to upgrade it. If you like woodworking projects that involve staining, check out my doll house book case build plans, my DIY paver and wood outdoor coffee table, and our AC unit screen.